Arles Between Heaven and Earth!

By Antoine Gigal
Translated from French into English
by Valerie Sandelin

A past always present

Seen from the heights of the region it is interesting and profound to discover Arles. Leaning to the Alpilles and overlooking the Rhône, the site was ideal for a big city. Supplanted today by other regional cities, it experienced its hour of glory under the reign of Caesar (End of 1st century BC.) thanks to the political and economic stability brought by “Pax romana”. The vestiges dominating the Arenas and the Ancient Theatre give an idea of the "greatness" of Rome.

photo 1,2

Covered walkways: the hypogea

We found quite few prehistoric remains on the site of the town itself. But many archaeological sites in the territory of Arles show an early occupation, reaching a high density since the Neolithic era (Stone Age) on the margins of the limestone massif of the Alpilles. The route from Arles to Fontvieille (RD 17) passes to the west of Mount Cordes and its extraordinary collection of funerary hypogea. Five hypogea of Fontvieille count among the largest megalithic tombs of Europe (photo 6 see below).

Thelin the nourishing

Originally, the region of Arles was not dry like today. The Mediterranean formed a deep estuary and the Rhone fed vast marshes. A few rocky islands then formed a territory easy to defend: Island of Cordes, Island of Castelet, Island of Mont-Majour, Isle of Arles, which were all occupied at the end of the Stone Age.

To The Phoenicians, who had appeared in the lower Rhone Valley at the end of the second millennium BC and founded, between Marseille and Arles, the stronghold of Bergine1 succeeded the Phoceans2.

photo 3, 4

From the middle of the sixth century, Arles was a Massiliot stronghold, important bridge between the Mediterranean coastal shipping and river or land traffic towards the interior of the Gaul. The Phoceans called it Thélinè, which the Romans translated: Mamillaria, Mamelue, in other words "the Nourishing", in tribute to their protecting guardian deity Artemis of Ephesus, matron with triple rows of breasts. But also because the Camargue, then periodically covered by the floodwaters of the Rhone, gave sixteen grains of wheat for one planted, fertility, which was compared to the delta of the Nile. Some linguists, however, believe, not without good reason, that Thélinè is a Greek play on words on a native name, of Télo, old aquatic and Ligurian divinity found in Toulon, because the oldest inhabitants of Arles were the Ligurians.

photo 5, 6, 7

Arelate, close to still waters

The Ligurians were quite inhospitable: the misadventures of Heracles, attacked not far from Arles by the sons of Poseidon, could be the poetic transcription of a very real war. When they penetrated in Provence the Romans found the Ligurian tribe closely mixed to a Salyens tribe, the Désuviates, who shared with two other Salyens peoples all the lower valley of the Rhone. Arles was already called Arelate, the name came from the Gaelic (Arlath), which can be translated as " near still waters ". The city rose then close to the immense lake Désuviate, which covered the plain between St. Remy, Eyragues, Maillane, Tarascon and Arles, alongside the Crau to Fos and opened on the sea.

Boats for Caesar

Marseille having taken a stand with Pumpei against Caesar, the latter commanded the Arlaten arsenals, the fleet with which he proposed to reduce the Phocean metropolis. It was delivered to him in less than one month. This zeal was rewarded. Pretending to forget that the powerful sailors of Arles had formerly helped Hannibal to cross France, from which Rome almost perished, Caesar stripped Marseille to enrich Arles which then became the largest maritime and river port of the Gauls. From Mainz to Beirut, the navy of Arles was soon expanded to the four corners of the Empire.

Duplex Arelas, double Arles

Arles was from now Arelas duplex. On the rock, along the Rhone, rose the high city, the castrum. On the right bank of the river, the suburba gallica Insula, the Island of in the Gallic suburb, the native town, whose name still survived in the district of Gallègue at Trinquetaille. Initially of modest size, the city increased rapidly and was decorated, century after century, of splendid monuments: a theater of 16,000 seats, a circus, a basilica (where money changers and bankers treated their business), two and possibly three triumphal arches, many temples, an amphitheater that can hold all the people of the town today, as well as thermal baths as large as those of Caracalla3. Constantine (278-337) chose it as the imperial residence and built a lavish palace. His successors made it the capital of Gaul and obtained from the pope, for its archbishop, the title of primacy of the Gauls.

Fresh water of the Alpilles

Roman Arles was queen and mother of Gaul under Constantine, the capital of the seven provinces under Constantius III. Located at the crossroads of three major Roman roads (the Via Domilia, the Via Aurelia and Via Agrippa), enthroned on its river and its lagoon, heaping the treasure of the harvests of Camargue, it was more than ever Artemis-Thelin, nurturer and mistress of the crossroads.

Rome gave it what it needed most importantly: an aqueduct of forty-six kilometers to bring pure and fresh water from the Alpilles. On the heights overlooking Fontvieille, was built a waterworks which still litters the ground. Sixteen enormous paddle wheels, arranged in two sets, animated the first industrial flourmill of the Western world.

The Alycamps: Fields of Memory

But the most famous Holy Land of Arles is the great city of the dead which extended to the foot of the city of the living: Alyscamps, “alysii campi”, the Elysian fields the path leading to the kingdom of the dead. Already famous throughout Gaul at the beginning of the Gallo-Roman period, this necropolis extended beyond the ramparts and until on the hills of Mouleyre which it covered. Perhaps it covered also a much older place: at the junction point of two branches of the road, the church of Notre-Dame de Bélis, destroyed and replaced by a leper colony in 1556, evokes the name of Belisama, Gallic deity.

Mysterious stone cupules

It is the only known cemetery in France, there has continued, beyond the first Christian period, marking the tombs of a very ancient funerary symbol: the cupules (photo 9), whose meaning remains mysterious. They are regular hemispherical holes, two to three centimeters deep, three or four centimeters wide. Perhaps, initially, cups for oil or primitive worship lamps, these cups have subsequently lost any utilitarian sense, since they are found even on vertical walls.

Widespread throughout the megalithic civilization, then forsaken everywhere, these symbols abound on the Gallo-Roman sarcophagi of Alyscamps. The early Arles Christians often used an ancient pagan tomb to bury one of their own, which was frequently, "Christianized" the cups - cruciform engravings. Below: photo 8, 9, 10, 11.

St. Trophime

Legend and history are inextricable in connection with this great figure of the town of Arles. Confusion has developed over time between two characters, the disciple of St. Paul who came in year 46 to evangelize Gaul and a second saint quoted in the history of the Church by Gregoire de Tours (539 -594). This author suggests that Trophime was one of seven missionaries sent by Rome to evangelize Gaul under the reign of Emperor Decius, in the years 250-254. He would have been the founder of the church of Arles in the third century and its first bishop (But this second version seems rather to correspond to a late version of the church in Rome trying to consolidate its power over the region and rewrite the history of a few awkward characters of early Christianity).

The Divine knee

According to the first version, St. Trophime would have been a disciple of St. Paul and cousin of saint Etienne (St. Stephen)'s cousin, the first Christian martyr. In the year 46, Peter and Paul themselves, sent him to evangelize the Gauls. He landed in Provence in the company of Mary Magdalene, Martha and Lazarus. Going Up the Rhone, he came to convert Arles. At this point in time he decided to devote to the Alyscamps people a burial reserved for the Christians. This was his first priestly act.

To perform this ceremony, he convened seven other bishops, selected from the seventy-two first disciples of Christ: St. Maximin of Aix, St Saturnin of Toulouse, St. Martial de Limoges, St Eutropius of Orange, St. Front of Périgueux and St. Serge of Narbonne. Jesus then appeared in the middle of the holy bishops and blessed himself the cemetery, by bending his knees whose print remained marked on a stone. On the site of the miracle on the road to Marseilles, at the entrance of the city, was consecrated a chapel, known as the Genouillade (Genou: ‘the knee’ photo 26). It was raised in the sixteenth century and can still be seen today, not far from Alyscamps, sandwiched between road and railway, in a neighborhood that still bears this name.

The pond, home of the Devil

Blessing the Cemetery, Christ drove out the demons and promised to protect forever from their evil spells the dead which would rest there. But other diabolic creatures haunted the pond of Malcrozet, the cursed hole, which skirted the Alyscamps. "Nothing was left living in its waters or on its banks, and all those who approached there were precipitated " tells the legend of St. Trophime. This one drove out the evil spirits and the pond filled miraculously with fish in such such great numbers that all the city could be fed with them4.

photo 12, 13

Then, where the bishops gathered, the saint consecrated a chapel, Notre-Dame-de-Grace, on the site of which would have been raised Basilica St. Honorat. It housed a black virgin5 attributed to St. Trophime, and a silver statue. Both disappeared and were replaced by a marble statue. The latter, in 1793, broke the legs of a profaner at the time when he put his hand on her. The people acclaimed the miracles and in honor to the victorious Virgin, the statue was transferred to the Cathedral.

photo 14, 15

Barrels for coffins

Many were the Christians who wanted to sleep their last sleep in this miraculous land kept from the demon, blessed by Christ himself, protected by St. Trophime and the Virgin Deipare6. All these deceased were not from Arles. The Rhone brought the dead whom its residents sealed into barrels coated with pitch, and accompanied by the cost of shipping and burial: the right of “mortellage”. Gervais of Tilbury adds about these strange vessels, that the hand of God must have been steering them to land on the correct sacred shores. He said that one day young people of Beaucaire robbed a casket of the money of the deceased. The funeral barrel then miraculously came repeatedly back to the scene of the robbery, despite the current. This strangeness alerted the authorities who discovered the culprits and punished them severely.

The gigantic cemetery

Soon there were so many dead that they had to be compacted, and ultimately superimposed into five successive layers. The popularity of the Alyscamps decreased, however, in the twelfth century when the remains of St. Trophime were transferred to the cathedral. But the miraculous cemetery, famous throughout Christendom, remained a very important place of pilgrimage. People went there in droves, especially during Lent. From century to century, many shrines and sanctuaries were built in the area. There were as many as thirty chapels or vaults. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, there remained only twelve, almost all in ruins.

Parallel to the growth of Alyscamps cemetery, the legends continued to grow as well. It was said that St. Denys l’Areopagite came to see St. Trophime and founded a chapel to Saint-Pierre-de-Mouleyre on the ruins of a temple of Mars. The mother of St. Quentin, Bishop of Vaison, there heard a chorus of angels inform her that she would be the mother of a saint. Better yet, on the night of All Saints' day, Christ came there to say Mass for the dead with the angels and all the saints of Arles!

photo 16, 17, 18

In the heart of the necropolis - cemetery lies the Basilica of St Honorat

The center of worship, in Alyscamps, was originally dedicated to St. Genesius. He was the city clerk of Arles in the third century who having refused to transcribe an edict of persecution of the Christians - perhaps that of Decius - was beheaded in 250. He then took his severed head and threw it into the Rhone. It arrived miraculously finally in Cartagena. Genesius was buried in the cemetery of Alyscamps.

Built around 600, then devastated in 735 during the Saracen occupation, it was reconstructed for the first time in the eleventh century. By 1200, with the vaults threatening to collapse, it was rebuilt again and became a priory dedicated to St. Honorat, depending on the Saint-Victor Abbey of de Marseille.

Unfortunately, despite urgent appeals, the archbishop could not collect all the funds he needed, so that the work was not completed. However, its opportunities for worship multiplied. To St. Genesius, whose sarcophagus and miraculous waters were always the object of veneration, were also brought the relics of Saint Dorothy and the Archbishop Rotland then those of St. Trophime. All these relics are today gathered in an obscure vault of the cathedral, protected by many shrines, much gilding and bars ... moving testimonies of the faith of an era.

Place of Remembrance

Saint-Honorat was plundered in 1793, and the collection of the Fathers of the Convent of Minimes destroyed or dispersed. The church, fortunately, survived. The great city of the dead, celebrated throughout the Christian world, was looted by treasure hunters and more still, by collectors of antiques who came there starting from the Renaissance, to enrich their personal collections.

At the beginning of the last century, it still remained a sacred place of touching melancholy, littered with ruins and undergrowth. Under Louis-Philippe, a railroad company came there to build warehouses and repair shops. Today, only one beautiful alley of sarcophagi remains, along the avenue leading to St. Honorat and around the church itself. The railways have devoured the gods, but the charm of the old stones remains.

photo 20, 21


At the heart of the city

In the heart of Arles, in the place of the town hall, in the center of the square is a fountain topped by an obelisk, it is the needle of Arles. It is made out of red granite and the city owes it to the Emperor Constantine (the emperors greatly admired the Egyptian civilization). The needle points to the entry of St. Trophime Cathedral, well-known to lovers of Romanesque art. Its gate has been remarkably restored. It's now the turn point of the adjoining cloisters where you can admire a unique representation of the Tarascan7 "Short and massive monster, equipped with six feet and a reptilian tail, " as described by Jacques Voragine in the" Golden Legend8.

Of the first construction of the church of the Carolingian period and dedicated to St. Etienne /Stephen (early seventh century) there remains almost nothing. It was first modified in the eleventh century, but the roof having collapsed, they had to rebuild it again a hundred years later. Then they gave it saint Trophimus for patron, whose remains were transferred there in 1182. The porch (of the same family as that of the nearby town of Saint-Gilles) was started in 1211. Below: photo 22, 23, 24, 25

A book of stones

The rich ornamentation of the gate, a true "book of stone," illustrating the theme of the Last Judgment. We discover there, in addition to the traditional iconography, some strange scenes. In the north, below Saint Michael weighing souls, a demon appears carrying two damned souls refusing to hear the divine word. The devil wears a Phrygian cap, carries these poor wretches attached by the feet at both ends of a pole resting on his shoulder. One can find, in the lower register, Heracles slaying the Nemean lion.

The presence of the lion

The lion has a prominent place around the portal where it is present at least fifteen times: the lion attribute of St. Mark, Daniel in the lions' den, the archangel Gabriel and the prophet Habakkuk carrying the meal to Daniel, Samson slaying the lion, the combat of a goat against a lion, a lion attacked by a centaur, a lion slaying a man, a lion devouring a victim, the lioness, her two lion cubs and a goat, lions carrying on their back the bases of large stone statues ... (Photos 2 and 22).

That lion nature is left ambiguous because if, in the Romanesque symbolism, the lion represents the Christian, it is unclear what kind of Christians can symbolize the Lion of Nemea defeated by Heracles, nor beasts eager to eat the unfortunate Daniel. The presence of the lion in Arles suggests influences much older, which were taken over by the builders of the Middle Ages in a "discreet" way. Below: photo 26.

A rich symbolism

The lion played an important role in all the Mediterranean cultures. Among the Etruscans, winged lions guarded the entry of the burial chambers. Their presence marked the passage between the world of the living and the dead. We saw that this was so also in Egypt where the akerou - two lion-headed deities with heads of lion guarding the access to the world of the Duat (see Sacrée planète No. 33 - p.30). No wonder then, that these felines are present near one of the largest necropolis in the Gallo-Roman Gaul. By extension, the lion became the symbol of Resurrection to the Christians.

The lion also symbolized royalty and the sun throughout the Middle East. This association was found both in the carved lions on the throne of the Hittite monarchs, kings, as on the bas-reliefs of Susa and Persepolis. In Babylon, for example, the time of Nebuchadnezzar, the processional route was decorated with bas-relief in ceramic tiles in the shape of a lion.

In Greek mythology, the lions appear in various functions. The lion of Nemea, is represented as a man-eating beast, skin impenetrable, and was killed by Heracles during his twelve labors. The chimera, another hybrid, whose body is that of a lion, is killed by Bellerophon. The lion is the animal of the goddess Cybele: she surrounds herself with them or uses them to pull her chariot.

One of Aesop's fables tells the story of Androcles, a slave who removes a thorn from the paw of a lion and is subsequently saved by the same animal when he was thrown to the wild beasts. The Physiologus, ancient bestiary written in Greek in the 3rd century in Alexandria and later translated into Latin in the 4th century, remains one of the greatest literary works having greatly influenced the Western Middle Ages. This ancient work gave to the lion its image as king of the animals, and its likening to image of Christ. In the Apocalypse of John, Christ is called the Lion of Judah (the tribe of Judah). It is also from the Physiologus which came the attributes of the lion in the Middle Ages, namely the power, wisdom and justice. Finally the lion has always figured on the shield of arms of the city (picture 5), but the old motto "ab ira leonis (by the anger of the lion) has disappeared.

photo 27, 28

Pagan Arles

If the lion had its hour of glory in Arles, the bull is today the emblem animal of the city. Aries had already a long and rich history when Rome tried to impose on it its culture and religion. Bishop Caesarius (464-542) had much to do to "Christianize" its pagan cults and places.

Bulls and Men

According to an old tradition, reported by Gervais of Tilbury9, a temple of Diana stood at Bourg-Neuf, the location of the church St. Blaise. A chronicler even said that an altar from it remained a long time, where a Sylvain, in natural scale was found and where in pagan times three young men were sacrificed every year to sprinkle the people with their blood. François de Rebatu10 and Mistral took up this story.

It was very near there that in 1598, during the drilling of the Craponne Canal, where there was discovered the marble effigy of a curious idol: we know of it only by the torso, marked by the signs of the zodiac and intertwined by an enormous snake. It is a decapitated lion-headed Chronos, deity associated with the cult of Mithra, very popular among Roman soldiers, and which included the sprinkling of the faithful with the blood of victims. But these victims were only of young bulls. It is therefore not unlikely to imagine that the legend of human sacrifice may have arisen from confusion between the words juvenes (young people) and juvenci (young bulls). One might think that this tradition predates the Roman occupation.

Mithras was a god of Iranian origin. Christianity made Saint Mitre well known throughout the land of Provence. This cult involved a ritual sacrifice of a bull. Mithra was born on December 25th after the winter solstice. The essential act was the sacrifice of the original bull slaughtered on the order of the Sun. From its blood, its bone marrow and its seeds sprang the plants and animals. Reenactments of these rites are numerous in Provence echoing the thousand-year-old worship of the primitive bull, associated with the cult of the invincible sun, of Dionysian nature.

The Bull/ Taurus is constantly associated with water in the Camargue; Moreover, the mythology of the bull-god is sometimes associated with Poseidon and with a nymph, daughter of Minos, of which he would be the son under the name of Taras. He is called the "bull Anadyomene", i.e./ that is to say the bull rose from water - out of the ‘billows’. In addition, the ferric, trident of herdsmen, is similar to the trident of Neptune.

Refuge of the History

The testimony of history is all gathered today in the very recent County Museum of Ancient Arles ... ironically with a very modern look. It currently houses a remarkable exhibition "Memories of the Rhone”, the result of twenty years of excavations in the river ... dominated by a magnificent head of white marble of Julius Caesar surprisingly expressive.

Alongside Caesar, one finds Neptune. The Customs Seals from Arles were struck with his effigy. Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Apollo and Juno had their altars, beside the imported gods: Mithra, Isis and Osiris. Many representations of a mother goddess animated the fervor of the people and later were used as a model, for the early Roman virgins. Cybele, a native of Phrygia who became the "Bona Dea" of the Romans had his temple. It was found on the site of Notre-Dame de la major, the remains of an altar with those characteristic ears. The altar of Cybele were decorated with two ears, surrounded by a crown (photo /Fig. 24). They symbolized the call of the priestesses for Cybele, for the good goddess ‘s clemency, but probably many other things as well…

Bless what you cannot prevent!

The people from Arles (Arlesians) long remained deeply rooted in paganism: 200 years after the real foundation of Christianity in Arles, 100 years after the edict of Constantine, the sermons of St. Cesaire (see frame p.11) still castigated the worshipers of the demons. In fact, what St. Cesaire stigmatized with vigor, were the more or less orgiastic masquerades and festivities that marked the beginning of the year.

Large popular festivities lasted several days. The Arlesians worshipped the trees and fountains, organized processions with dances (balationes and saltationes) even in the churches, especially the day of St. John: Midsummer's Day. "Pagan custom! exclaimed Cesaire who multiplied the anathemas and warnings: it was forbidden, “under penalty of losing one’s baptism”, to bring lights or make libations at "temples, fountains, stones, trees, caves or the intersection of three roads (the trivium was a sacred place of Diana-Hecate)”.
Despite his authority, his energy, his fighting spirit, Cesaire had to make some concessions to pagan rituals… In most cases, like many others, he reassigned what he could not prevent and substituted the new cults for the old rites. Thus he instituted in Arles the processions of Rogation to replace the balationes in honor of Cybele. They sought a similar purpose: to celebrate the fertile earth.

Departure point for the St Jacques de Compostela pilgrimage

We are here indeed on a high sacred place. Arles was the starting point to St Jacques de Compostela, the Via Tolosana. We saw that this place symbolized, with its multiple necropoles, the passage from one life to another, from one state to another. Death is here “initiatory”. The pilgrim died to one life to gain another when, starting from Alyscamps, he entered on the path. The place was not chosen by chance. Here the pilgrim remembered that he was mortal, but also that death was a new departure.

The "Egyptian Book of the Dead" which tells us about the funerary practices of the time is also, altho its title does not indicate a "Book of Life"11 the guide of the journey of the candidate to initiation. Initiation in Egypt began with a walk in the company of Anubis in a large area covered with tombs. It was the realm of the dead. Death and tombs are still in the center of the transmission of knowledge. We know from the myths that burial is the sublime secret which houses the potential for resurrection in another life.

Today, life abounds in this southern colorful metropolis, but history teaches people that look more carefully. Here, the worlds coexist and interpenetrate, the shapes transform and all remains. An immensely rich human history was recorded in these places.

CESAIRE, One of the patron saints of Arles

Born in 470 in Burgundian territory of Catholic parents, Cesaire became a monk at Lerins at the age of 20 years, and was accepted in the clergy of Arles, where the bishop Eone, with whom he was related, ordained him priest in 499 and entrusted him the direction of a monastery located in front of the city.

He probably became bishop of Arles in December 502 but continued living as a monk, demanding that the clergy be exemplary.

In 506 he presided over the Council of Agde for which he prepared the work and suggested the decisions. In 513 when he founded in Alyscamps the first women's monastery, moved inside the walls of Arles in 524 and called “Monastère Saint-Jean”- St. John’s monastery.

Appointed vicar of the Apostolic Seat in Gaul and Spain in 514, he convened and presided over many councils: Arles in 524, Carpentras in 527, Vaison in 529, Second Council of Orange in 529, Valencia (in 530), Orleans (in 533, 538 and 541) and Clermont (in 535), which adopted his ideas. He died after 40 years as bishop, on August 27th 542.

His work consists mainly of sermons, strongly inspired by the doctrines of Augustine, which tell us about the daily life of Arles of the beginning of the sixth century. It is seen there especially that pagan practices are still very much alive.

At the crossroads of terrestrial and maritime ways, Arles was from immemorial time always a place of "passages" real and also subtle. Behind its southern exuberance and ferias, it hides in its depths fabulous secrets.

A great Amerindian Indian chief said: "It's a beautiful day to die" ... We could write of Arles: "It's a beautiful place to die! "

By Marie-Helene Courtat


Sites to be consulted: insolite.htm


- Egypt all mysteries - Charly Samson - available at SP
- The sacred guide of Saint Jacques - Pierre Guelff - site:


1 - Today, St. Etienne-du-grès.
2 - The history is attested by literary sources including the Roman writer Avienus (IVth century).

3 - Inaugurated in Rome under the Roman Emperor Caracalla in 216, these thermal baths are the largest and most luxurious complexes made so far. In addition to the facilities for bathing, they offered varied activities (public and private baths, swimming, massage, gymnastics, etc..), which explains their gigantic size : a surface of over 10 hectares, the place for 1600 swimmers, 64 cisterns of 80,000 liters ...

4 - Constants like this appear regularly in the hagiographies. This shows that they were written using symbolic images, and codified in order to capture the imagination of the faithful and not the interests of historical truth. It is difficult today to accurately identify the characters, places or times, we can on the other hand recognize identical situations and symbols according to the characters and what one wants them to represent.

5 - Arles held a black virgin watching over the cemetery of Aliscamps. She was replaced by a white virgin under the Huguenots. But by popular request she was restored to her original position ... only to disappear again towards the end of the nineteenth century. It may well be that of Barbegol ... near Arles. (

6 - the virgin Deipare is the virgin “ Mother of God "

7 - Tarascan dragon is a kind of mythical animal dragon of the folklore of Provence.

8 - The "Golden Legend" (1261-1266) which became very famous in the Middle Ages and influenced the illustrators of Christian art, was written by a Dominican monk in order to exalt the faithful by showing them the combat that God leads against the evil spirits.

9 - Clerc originating in the British Isles (1155-1234))

10 - Author of " La Diane et le Jupiter d’Arles “ (The Diane and Jupiter of Arles) 1656)

11 - According to a papyrus found in a tomb preserved at Leiden in Holland, who recounts the initiation of Horsieris.


  • Photo 1 – Bust of Caesar. Arles had its moment of glory during his reign
  • Photo 2- The lion is represented in Arles on numerous occasions
  • Photo 3: Alyscamps, the great city of the dead, meaning the Elysian fields, the path which leads to the kingdom of the dead.
  • Photo 4: Tympanum of St Trophime
  • Photo 5 – Coat of arms of the city of Arles
  • Photo 6: Entrance to the hypogeum of Castelet
  • Photo 7: engraved symbol
  • Photo 8: St. Honorat’s bell-tower
  • Photo 9: cupule, /cup in the rock
  • Photo 10: path
  • Photo 11: symbol
  • Photo 12: St. Anne ‘s Church facing the obelisk
  • Photo 13: St. Trophime (Gate of the cathedral)
  • Photo 14: Marquee of the cloister of St. Trophime
  • Photo 15: Portal of St. Trophime
  • Photo 16: St. Paul and St. Andrew
  • Photo 17: St. Etienne
  • Photo 18: Details of the gate of St. Trophime: Demon carrying two damned souls
  • Photo 19: The cistern of the cloister of Saint-Trophime
  • Photo 20: St. Blaise and St. Cesaire
  • Photo 21 - Sarcophagus with a cross
  • Photo 22 - Samson and the Lion
  • Photo 23 - Bona Dea
  • Photo 24 - Temple of Cybele Glanum
  • Photo 26 - Chapel la Genouillade (genuflection)
  • Photo 27 - Roman roads in Arles
  • Photo 28 - Head of Juno
  • Photo 30 – Neptune

South France retreat: